Clipper Circuit: positive, Double & problems Explained

Hey friends, welcome to the Kohiki  All About Electronics. In this article, we will learn about the clipper circuit. In the Previous Article, We Discussed Varactor Diode Explained

What is Clipper Circuit? Applications of Clipper Circuit

The clipper circuit prevents the output waveform from exceeding a certain level. And at the same time, the AC signal does not distort the remaining part of the waveform. And very shortly it will get clear to you.

clipper circuit application So, these clipper circuits are used in the over-voltage protection and the wave shaping circuits. And these circuits can be designed just by using the diode and the resistors.

What is Clipper Circuit? Applications of Clipper Circuit
The clipper circuit prevents the output waveform from exceeding a certain level. And at the same time, the AC signal does not distort the remaining part of the waveform. And very shortly it will get clear to you.

clipper circuit experiment So, the simplest form of the clipper circuit is the half-wave rectifier, which can be designed just by using the diode and the resistor. And as you are aware, whenever the AC signal is applied to the rectifier, then it passes the positive half cycle and rejects the negative half cycle. And just by reversing the direction of the diode, it is possible to pass the negative half cycle and reject the positive half cycle.

Also Read: what is a flux capacitor: Real life, Uses & Video Explained


Types of Clipper Circuit

  • Positive Clipper Circuit
  • Negative Clipper Circuit

types of clipper circuit So, depending on which portion of the waveform is clipped, the clipper circuit can be classified as either a positive clipper circuit or a negative clipper circuit. And further depending on the position of the diodes, it can be further classified as either a series clipper circuit or the parallel clipper circuit.

Types of Clipper Circuit
So, depending on which portion of the waveform is clipped, the clipper circuit can be classified as either a positive clipper circuit or a negative clipper circuit. And further depending on the position of the diodes, it can be further classified as either a series clipper circuit or the parallel clipper circuit.

So, in the case of the series clipper circuit, the diode is connected in series with this load resistor. While in the case of the parallel clipper circuit, the output is measured directly across this diode. Or in other words, the load is connected in parallel with this diode. So, one by one, we will see all the different types of clipper circuits and we will also solve some examples.

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Parallel Clipper Circuit

So, this is an example of the parallel clipper circuit. So, let’s analyze this circuit and let’s see how the output waveform will look like. And for simplicity, throughout the analysis, we will assume that the diode which is used is the ideal diode.

Parallel Clipper Circuit
But first of all, let's see the parallel clipper circuit. So, this is an example of the parallel clipper circuit. So, let's analyze this circuit and let's see how the output waveform will look like. And for simplicity, throughout the analysis, we will assume that the diode which is used is the ideal diode.

So, now during the positive half cycle, this diode will get turned ON, or we can say that it will simply act as a short circuit. So, during the positive half cycle, the output of the circuit will be equal to zero. And during the negative half cycle, this diode will act as reverse bias. So, simply it will act as an open circuit. So, during this negative half cycle, the output will follow the input voltage.

So, if you see the overall output of the circuit, then it will look like this. that means considering the ideal diode, it eliminates the positive half cycle and it allows the negative half cycle. So, basically, we can say that it is positive. And similarly, just by reversing the direction of the diode, it is possible to design the negative circuit.

Parallel Clipper Circuit
But first of all, let's see the parallel clipper circuit. So, this is an example of the parallel clipper circuit. So, let's analyze this circuit and let's see how the output waveform will look like. And for simplicity, throughout the analysis, we will assume that the diode which is used is the ideal diode.

So, during the positive half cycle, this diode will act as an open circuit and the output will follow the input signal. And during the negative half cycle, this diode will get turned ON. So, simply it will act as a short circuit, and during the negative half cycle, the output of the circuit will be equal to zero.

Now, here if this diode is non-ideal, in that case, the actual waveform will look like this. That means whenever the input voltage goes below this -0.7V, then this diode will get turned ON. And the voltage across this diode will be equal to 0.7V.

So, if we measure from this side, then it will be equal to -0.7V. So, in the actual diode, the output waveform will look like this.

Also Read: Crystal Oscillator: Circuit, Applications, Frequency & Working


Parallel Clipper Circuit with Biasing Voltage

Now, many times in the circuit, it is required to clip the particular waveform at a certain voltage level. And for that, we can also add the biasing voltage in series with this diode.

So, this circuit is an example of the with biasing voltage. So, let’s analyze this circuit and let’s see the output waveform.

Parallel Clipper Circuit with Biasing Voltage
Now, many times in the circuit, it is required to clip the particular waveform at a certain voltage level. And for that, we can also add the biasing voltage in series with this diode. So, this circuit is an example of the clipper circuit with the biasing voltage. So, let's analyze this circuit and let's see the output waveform.

So, first of all, let’s draw a reference line which represents the V volt. Now, this diode will get turned ON whenever the input voltage Vin is greater than V volt.

So, whenever the input voltage is less than Volt, that means during this time, this diode will act as an open circuit.

And during this time, the output will follow the input voltage. That means during this time, the output will look like this.

Now, after that whenever this input voltage is greater than V volt, then this diode will get turned ON, and it will simply act as a short circuit. So, during this time, the output voltage will be equal to V volt.

then after once again whenever the input voltage goes below this reference voltage, then once again this diode will act as an open circuit. So, during this entire time, the output will follow the input voltage. And if you see the overall output waveform, then it will look like this.

Also Read: Colpitts Oscillator: Working, Circuit, frequency derivation


clipper circuit with positive biasing voltage

clipper circuit with positive biasing voltage
Now, here if this diode is non-ideal, in that case, the actual waveform will look like this. That means this diode will conduct whenever the input voltage is greater than V +0.7 V. And now, the waveform will get clipped ATV + 0.7 V. So, this circuit which we have discussed is a clipper circuit with positive biasing voltage.

Now, here if this diode is non-ideal, in that case, the actual waveform will look like this. That means this diode will conduct whenever the input voltage is greater than V +0.7 V. And now, the waveform will get clipped ATV + 0.7 V. So, this circuit which we have discussed is a with positive biasing voltage.

Also Read: Wien Bridge Oscillator: Circuit, Op-amp & variable frequency


clipper circuit with the negative biasing voltage

similarly, we can also design a with the negative biasing voltage such that it can clip the negative half cycle at a certain voltage level.

So, in this circuit, the diode will conduct whenever the input voltage is less than – V volt. That means up to this point, the diode will act as an open circuit.

clipper circuit with the negative biasing voltage
similarly, we can also design a clipper circuit with the negative biasing voltage such that it can clip the negative half cycle at a certain voltage level. So, in this circuit, the diode will conduct whenever the input voltage is less than - V volt. That means up to this point, the diode will act as an open circuit.

And during this time, the output will follow the input voltage. And once the input voltage goes below this-V volt, then this diode starts conducting. And simply it will act as a short circuit. So, during this time, the output will be equal to -V volt.

And then after once again, this diode will act as an open circuit. So, then after the output will follow the input signal. So, if you see the overall output waveform, then it will look like this.

So, in this way, by using the negative biasing voltage, it is also possible to clip the negative half cycle at a certain voltage.

Also Read: RC Phase Shift Oscillator (using Op-Amp) Explained


design positive and the negative half cycles

similarly, it is also possible to design a clipper circuit that can clip the positive and the negative half cycles together at the different voltage levels.

So, as you can see in this circuit, the diodeD1 is biased with voltage V1 and diode D2 is biased with voltage V2.

So, this diode D1 will clip the positive half cycle and this diode D2 will clip the negative half cycle. So, first of all, let’s mark this voltageV1 and V2 on this input waveform.

design a clipper circuit positive and the negative half cycles
similarly, it is also possible to design a clipper circuit that can clip the positive and the negative half cycles together at the different voltage levels. So, as you can see in this circuit, the diodeD1 is biased with voltage V1 and diode D2 is biased with voltage V2. So, this diode D1 will clip the positive half cycle and this diode D2 will clip the negative half cycle. So, first of all, let's mark this voltageV1 and V2 on this input waveform.

So, now this diode D1 will conduct whenever the input voltage Vin is greater than V1 volt. And similarly, this diode D2 will conduct whenever the input voltage is less than -V2 volt.

So, initially, whenever the input voltage is less than this V1 volt, that means during this time both diodes will get reversed biased.

They will act as an open circuit. So, during this time, the output will follow the input waveform. Now, once this input waveform Vin is greater than V1 volt, that means during this time, this diode D1 will get forward biased and this diode D2 will remain reverse biased.

So, this diode D1 can be replaced as a short circuit and this diode D2 will act as an open circuit. So, during this time, the output will be equal to V1 volt.

And after that whenever the input voltage is between the V1 and the -V2 volt, that means during this time, both diodes will act as an open circuit. So, during this time, once again the output will follow the input signal.

So, during this time, the output will look like this. And after that whenever the input voltage goes below this -V2 volt, that means during this time, this diode D1 will still remain reverse biased but now this diode D2 will get forward biased.

So, we can replace this diode D1 as an open circuit and this diode D2 as a short circuit. So, during this time, the output voltage Vout will be equal to -V2.

After that whenever the input voltage becomes greater than -V2 volt, that means during this time, both diode once again will act as an open circuit. And during this time, the output will once again follow the input signal. So, during this time, we will get this kind of waveform.

design a clipper circuit positive and the negative half cycles
After that whenever the input voltage becomes greater than -V2 volt, that means during this time, both diode once again will act as an open circuit. And during this time, the output will once again follow the input signal. So, during this time, we will get this kind of waveform.

So, if you see the overall output waveform, then it will look like this. so, in this way, by applying the two different biasing voltages, it is possible to clip the positive and the negative half cycles at the different voltage levels. Now, instead of using the two biasing voltages, the same waveform can also be achieved by using the back to back Zener diodes.

design a clipper circuit positive and the negative half cycles
So, if you see the overall output waveform, then it will look like this. so, in this way, by applying the two different biasing voltages, it is possible to clip the positive and the negative half cycles at the different voltage levels. Now, instead of using the two biasing voltages, the same waveform can also be achieved by using the back to back Zener diodes.

So, here the Zener voltages of these diodesD1 and D2 are V1 and V2 respectively. And using this circuit, it is possible to achieve this same waveform. So, in this way, parallel clipper circuits can be used for wave shaping and circuit protection.

Also Read: Op-Amp: Voltage to Current Converter


Series Clipper Circuit

And if we consider the actual diode, then this diode will conduct whenever the input voltage Vin is greater than 0.7V.


Series Clipper Circuit
So similarly, now let's see the series clipper circuit. So, as I said earlier, the half-wave rectifier is the simplest form of series clipper circuit. And considering the ideal diode, the circuit passes the positive half cycle and it rejects the negative half cycle. And if we consider the actual diode, then this diode will conduct whenever the input voltage Vin is greater than 0.7V.


And in that case, the output waveform will look like this. And in this case, the peak amplitude of the output waveform will be equal to Vm – 0.7V. And likewise, by reversing the direction of the diode, it is possible to eliminate the positive half cycle and pass the negative half cycle.

Also Read: Op-Amp: Current to Voltage Converter


Series with Biasing Voltage

So, let’s analyze this circuit and let’s see the output waveform. So, here this diode will conduct whenever the input voltage (Vin – V) volt is greater than 0. Or in other words, we can say that whenever the input voltage Vin is greater than V volt. So, for the analysis, let’s draw a reference voltage over here.


Series Clipper Circuit with Biasing Voltage
So, let's analyze this circuit and let's see the output waveform. So, here this diode will conduct whenever the input voltage (Vin - V) volt is greater than 0. Or in other words, we can say that whenever the input voltage Vin is greater than V volt. So, for the analysis, let's draw a reference voltage over here.

So, whenever the input voltage Vin is less than V volt, that means during this time, this diode will act as reverse bias. and it will simply act as an open circuit. So, during this time, the output voltage V out will be equal to zero.

That means whenever, the input voltage is less than V volt, then during that time, the output will be equal to zero. Now, whenever the input voltage goes above this V volt, then this diode starts conducting.

And at that time, the output voltage across the load resistor will be equal to Vin – V volt. So, during this time, if you see the output waveform, then it will look like this. And the peak amplitude of the signal will be equal to Vm – V Volt.

And similarly, for the negative half cycle, this diode will still remain the reverse bias. So, for the negative half cycle also the output voltage V out will be equal to zero.

Series Clipper Circuit with Biasing Voltage
So, let's analyze this circuit and let's see the output waveform. So, here this diode will conduct whenever the input voltage (Vin - V) volt is greater than 0. Or in other words, we can say that whenever the input voltage Vin is greater than V volt. So, for the analysis, let's draw a reference voltage over here.

So, if you see the overall output waveform, then it will look like this. That means this diode will conduct whenever the input voltage Vin is greater than V volt.

And for the remaining time, it will remain off. So, in this way, by using the biasing voltage with this series, we can change the On time or the ON duration of the output waveform.

Also Read: Schmitt Trigger How it Works and Applications


Example No.1

Alright so now let’s see few examples based on this. So, in this first example, we have been given this and we have been asked to find the output waveform across this resistor.

Alright so now let's see few examples based on this clipper circuit. So, in this first example, we have been given this clipper circuit and we have been asked to find the output waveform across this resistor.

And here the Zener Diode which is used is the ideal diode with the breakdown voltage of 5V. So, to find the output voltage, let’s analyze this circuit.

So, as you can see, whenever the input voltage Vin is less than 5V, then during that time this Zener diode will act as an open circuit. So, during this time if you see the output voltage across this resistor then it will be equal to 0.

That means during this time, if you see the output voltage across this resistor then it will be equal to 0. Now, after that whenever the input voltage crosses the 5V, then this Zener diode provides the 5V. So, during this time the output voltage Vout will be equal to Vin – 5 V.

So, during this time, whenever the input voltage is greater than 5V, the output waveform will look like this. And once again, whenever the input voltage goes below this 5V, then once again this Zener diode will act as an open circuit. So, during this time, the output waveform will be equal to 0.

Alright so now let's see few examples based on this clipper circuit. So, in this first example, we have been given this clipper circuit and we have been asked to find the output waveform across this resistor.

Now, during the negative half cycle, that means whenever the Vin is less than zero, this diode will simply act like a normal diode. And considering it is an ideal diode, we can replace it with a short circuit. So, during the negative half cycle, the output voltage will follow the input signal. So, if you see the overall output waveform then it will look like this.

That means during the positive half cycle, this Zener diode will conduct whenever the input voltage is greater than 5V. And during the negative half cycle, simply it will act as a short circuit. So, for the given circuit, we will get this kind of waveform.

Also Read : Log and Antilog Amplifiers Explained | Applications of Log and Antilog Amplifiers


second example

Alright so now let’s see the second example. So, in this example, we have given this and the triangular wave is applied to this. And we have been asked to find the output waveform.

So, let’s analyze this circuit and let’s find out the output waveform. Now, in this circuit, this diode will conduct whenever the voltage at the cathode or in other words whenever the input voltage is less than 5V. So, whenever the input voltage is less than5V, that means during this time, the diode will get forward biased.

Alright so now let's see the second example. So, in this example, we have given this clipper circuit and the triangular wave is applied to this clipper circuit. And we have been asked to find the output waveform.

And simply we can replace it with a short circuit. So, during this time, the output voltage Vout will be equal to 5V. Now, after that, once this input voltage crosses this 5V, then this diode will get reverse biased. And we can replace it with an open circuit. So, during this time the output will follow the input signal.

Alright so now let's see the second example. So, in this example, we have given this clipper circuit and the triangular wave is applied to this clipper circuit. And we have been asked to find the output waveform.

clipper circuit pdf That means during this time, the output waveform will look like this. And after that once again whenever the input voltage goes below this 5V, then this diode will get forward biased. And simply it will act as a short circuit.

So, after that, we will get a constant voltage of 5V across the output. So, if you see the overall output voltage then it will look like this. So, in this way, we can analyze the given and we can find out the output waveform. And the more examples we will see in the upcoming quiz.

Also Read: Half-wave Rectifier Explained


FAQ


Youtube Video

So here are a youtube Video. Which Was Uploaded By Neso Academy


So, I hope in this article, you understood what is clipper circuit and how this clipper circuit can be used for waveshaping and circuit protection.

So, if you have any questions or suggestions, do let me know here in the comment section.

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