Parallel Plate Capacitor: Electric field, Equation, Capacitance Explained

A parallel plate capacitor is a type of capacitor with an arrangement of electrodes and insulating material. The two conductive plates serve as electrodes. There is a dielectric between them. This acts as a separator for the plate.

The two plates of the parallel plate capacitor are equal in size. They are connected to the power source. The plate connected to the positive electrode of the battery acquires a positive charge.

On the other hand, the plate connected to the negative terminal of the battery acquires a negative charge. Due to the attraction, the charge is trapped in the plates of the capacitor in some way.

The Parallel Plate Capacitor

The dielectric does not allow current to flow due to its non-conductive properties. However, the atoms of the dielectric material are polarized under the action of the electric field of the applied voltage source, and thus dipoles are formed due to the polarization, and therefore, negative and positive charges are deposited on the plates of the parallel plate capacitor.

Parallel Plate Capacitor
Parallel Plate Capacitor

As the accumulation of charge occurs on the plates, a charging current flows through the capacitor until the potential difference between the plates is equal to the power supply potential.

We define a parallel plate capacitor as a device that can store electrostatic energy in the form of electric charge in the dielectric medium between the plates, so it can be visualized as a rechargeable DC battery.

If the operating voltage of the capacitor increases above the threshold voltage limit, a short circuit occurs between the plates due to dielectric breakdown. This breakdown is caused by excessive heating of the dielectric medium due to an increase in the applied voltage, resulting in a breakdown.

The capacitor is broken. We should choose the operating voltage of the capacitor with the maximum threshold voltage within the proper range to protect the capacitor in this case.

Also Read: What is a flux capacitor: Real life, Uses & Video Explained

Electric field in parallel plate capacitor

The simple explanation is that in the outer region, the electric fields of the two plates cancel each other out. This explanation, usually introduced in introductory textbooks, assumes that the internal structure of the board is negligible and uses the principle of superposition.


A more realistic explanation is that basically, all the charges on each plate migrate to the inner surface. This charge with an area density of σ generates an electric field in only one direction, so it will have an intensity of σϵ0.

Electric field in parallel plate capacitor
Electric field in parallel plate capacitor

However, when using this description, you will not superimpose the electric field generated by the charge on the inner surface of the other plate.

These other charges are the terminator of the same electric field lines generated by the charges on the plate; they do not make a separate contribution to their own electric field.

Also Read: Capacitor, Capacitance, charge time, and Charge Explained

The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor

A is the area of ​​a slab and d is the distance between the two slabs. The constant ε0 is the permittivity of free space; the constant ε0 is the permittivity of free space.

The value of its SI unit is ε0= 8.85×10-12 F/m. The unit of F/m is equivalent to C2/N·m2. The small value of ε0 is related to the large size of Farad.

The must have a larger area to make the capacitance close to Farad.

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FAQ’s

What is a parallel plate capacitor

Parallel plate capacitors are the simplest form of capacitors. It can be constructed using two metal or metalized foil plates parallel to each other, the capacitance value of which is in farads, which is fixed by the surface area of ​​the conductive plates and the separation distance between them.

What are parallel plate capacitors used for

So this is all about the overview of parallel plate capacitors. Whenever a large amount of charge needs to be stored in a capacitor, it is impossible to store it in a single capacitor. Therefore, parallel plate capacitors are used to store large amounts of electrical energy because they use two plate electrodes.

What is the capacity of a parallel plate capacitor

A parallel plate capacitor with no dielectric but a pitch of 0.4 cm has a capacity of 2 μF. The interval is reduced to half, and a dielectric substance with a value of 2.8 is filled.

What is parallel plate capacitor obtain the formula

Capacitance C=VQ. Thus we get capacitance of parallel plate capacitor C=dAϵo.

What is the basic principle of capacitor

A capacitor is a device used to store charge in a circuit. The working principle of a capacitor is that when the grounding conductor is brought close to the conductor, the capacitance of the conductor will increase significantly.
Therefore, a capacitor has two plates, which are separated by a certain distance and have equal and opposite charges.

YouTube Video

So Here i added one youtube video for better Understanding.

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