In Previous Article We Disscused About Introduction Of Alternating Current (AC) And In This Article We Learn About AC and the Sine Wave.

## Waveform Frequency and Period Relationships

Any sinusoidal waveform can be fully defined by defining either time or frequency parameters, as well as one of three amplitude specifications. The frequency of a waveform is defined as the number of cycles that occur in one second of time.

Hertz is a standard unit of measurement (Hz). The length of a waveform, also known as its duration, is the amount of time taken to complete one cycle of a waveform. It is measured in seconds in units such as seconds, tenths of seconds, milliseconds, and microseconds.

A waveform must be repetitious in order to be adequately defined in terms of its time or frequency. A repeated waveform is one in which each subsequent loop is exactly the same as the previous cycle.

Also Read: Crystal Oscillator: Circuit, Applications, Frequency & Working

### Frequency and Period Relationships

The frequency of a waveform expressed in cycles per second. The second is mathematically defined in terms of the waveform’s length, T, as where f is the frequency of the waveform in hertz and T is the time it takes to complete one cycle of the waveform in seconds.

### Sine Waveform Amplitude Specifications

Aside from frequency and duration values, the amplitude or height of the wave is a third major specification of a waveform. A sinusoidal waveform’s amplitude can be expressed in three ways: peak, peak-to-peak, and root-mean-square (RMS).

## Peak Amplitude Specifications

The peak amplitude of a sinusoidal waveform is the maximum positive or negative deviation of a waveform from its zero reference level. Recall from the discussion of the single-loop generator in Chapter 1 that this maximum voltage or current occurs as the loop of wire cut the magnetic flux at a 90-degree angle.

Since the sinusoidal waveform is asymmetrical, the positive peak value is the same as the negative peak value, as shown in Figure. If the positive peak has a value of 10 volts, the negative peak would have the same value. Positive or negative peaks may be used to measure the peak value of a waveform.

Also Read: Colpitts Oscillator: Working, Circuit, frequency derivation

## Peak to Peak Amplitude Specifications

The peak-to-peak amplitude is simply a calculation of a waveform’s amplitude from its positive peak to its negative peak, as shown in Figure 2.3. The peak-to-peak value of the voltage for the non-sinusoidal waveform shown in Figure can be calculated by adding the magnitudes of the positive and negative peaks. The peak-to-peak amplitude in this case is 18 volts plus 2 volts for a total of 20 volts.

If the positive peak value of a sinusoidal waveform is 10 volts, then the negative peak value of the same waveform is also 10 volts. There are a total of 20 volts measured from peak to peak. As a result, the sinusoidal waveform in Figure may have either a 10 volt peak or a 20 volt peak-to-peak value.

## Relationship of an AC Waveform and a DC Waveform

Graphically, the relationship of a dc waveform to an ac waveform is as shown in Figure. The RMS value, or 0.707 of the peak value, is located about three-quarters of the way up the ac waveform. And as you can see, the peak value of the ac waveform is considerably higher than the level of the dc waveform.

This should not be surprising since an ac voltage is at its peak only momentarily and then drops back down. The RMS value of the wave can be determined if the peak voltage or current is known by rearranging the RMS ratio equation.

Also Read: Clamper circuits – Positive clamper, Negative clamper Explained

## sine wave generator

A sine wave generator is a circuit used to produce a sine wave. This is one type of waveform that can be seen from home electrical outlets. This waveform can be used in alternating current power as well as in acoustics. We are aware that different types of waveforms are generated by various electronic devices. As a result, each waveform produces a distinct set of sounds.

A sine wave is one form of signal used in acoustics. To design the sine wave generator circuit, various components such as an integrated circuit, resistors, capacitors, transistors, and so on are required.

Also Read: Clipper Circuit: positive, Double & problems Explained

## FAQ’S

**Why is a sine wave called a sine wave**

The waveform shape generated by our simple single loop generator is then known as a Sine Wave because it is sinusoidal in shape. This type of waveform is known as a sine wave because it is centred on the trigonometric sine equation, ( x(t) = Amax.

**How does a sine wave work**

Sine waves are used in trigonometry. A sine wave is a repetitive shift or motion that has the same form as the sine function when plotted as a graph. When it bounces up and down, the motion is a sine wave when graphed over time.

**What is the formula for a sine wave?**

To construct a sine function, simply use the following equation: f(x) = asin(bx + c) + d, where an is the amplitude and b is the period (the period can be found by dividing the absolute value b by 2pi; in your case, this is b).

**Is light a sine wave**

Light is defined as a sine wave since it has a single frequency and is the easiest to draw on paper.

**Is a sine wave a function**

A sine wave is a geometric waveform described by the function y = sin x that oscillates (moves up, down, or side to side) on a regular basis. In other words, it’s a smooth, s-shaped wave that oscillates above and below zero.

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